According to Hume, all religion started as polytheistic. For Hume, the sectarians cannot have their cake and eat it. The Credibility of the New Testament Accounts, 2 vols. Immediately after this, however, Philo proceeds to reverse his reversal i.
A mere possible compatibility is not sufficient. By this means, human beings hope to control what they do not understand and are afraid of. Various non-Christian miracles are worthy of credit. The Problem of Induction Induction is the practice of drawing general conclusions based on particular experiences.
All attempts to draw an evidential parallel between the miracles of the New Testament and the miracle stories of later ecclesiastical history are therefore dubious. Some critics have claimed that Hume, in laying down that miracles run up against uniform experience, is simply assuming at the outset that the probability of miracle occurrences is equal to zero see Johnson and Earman But just as metaphysics teach us, that the notion of substance is wholly confused and imperfect, and that we have no other idea of any substance than as an aggregate of particular qualities, inhering in an unknown something.
What we cannot do, Hume argues, is explain away all evidence of this kind by way of assuming that this world is the perfect creation of a perfect being. The same irrational forces that shape polytheism serve to explain the rise of theism and the instability and variations that we discover within it.
Burns and Oates, ]. We may first distinguish between arguments designed to show that their conclusions are true, reasonable, or justified, on the one hand, and arguments designed to show that their conclusions are more reasonable or more justified than they were apart from the considerations adduced.
Although this method is essential to empiricism and the scientific method, there is always something inherently uncertain about it, because we may acquire new data that are different and that disprove our previous conclusions. The design argument does not prove the existence of God in the way we conceive him: From the divine perspective, viewing the universe as one system, the removal of such ills or afflictions would produce greater ill or diminish the total amount of good in the world.
Paley had no objection to species changing over time. Those who hold the opposing view claim that God is the creator of the universe and the source of the order and purpose we observe in it, which resemble the order and purpose we ourselves create. Are we to suppose that God also has human passions and feelings of this kind.
However, this means that, in endorsing the occurrence of the miracle, the witness implicitly endorses two propositions: Indeed, like any other matter of fact, they must have some empirical content.
Surely things could have been arranged so that these extremes and their destructive consequences could be avoided. We cannot, for example, attribute any thing infinite to God based on our observation and experience of finite effects.
However, we must note that the passage that immediately precedes the example contains an ambiguous disjunct: Overall argues for the more radical contention that a miracle would count as evidence against the existence of God, on three grounds: For example, with a watch, we know it has to be created by a watch-maker because we can observe it being made and compare it to the making of other similar watches or objects to deduce they have alike causes in their creation.
First, while it was true that, early in his career, Hume edited his work to avoid giving offense, this was not the case later. The implication, then, is that for Hume, even the philosophical theist who erroneously believes that natural theology can arrive at an informative conception of a deity should still reject the cosmological argument as indefensible.
None of these considerations, however, show that the laws of nature have actually been violated. In two volumes L b. Therefore, The evidence for the Christian miracles is likely to be false. However, a final difficulty related to the modality of the conclusion concerns the observation that Hume couches his argument in terms of appropriate belief.
Let us compare the special ends, the means, the ordered relations of every kind, then let us listen to the inner voice of feeling; what healthy mind can reject its evidence.
We cannot make use of a more convincing argument, than to prove that the actions ascribed to any person are directly contrary to the course of nature, and that no human motives, in such circumstances, could ever induce him to such a conduct.
Having presented the Problem of Evil in these ways, Hume explicitly rejects some approaches to a solution while implicitly rejecting others. Moreover, because the ideas and arguments involved in this doctrine are considered by Hume to be obscure and unconvincing, we find, in practice, that the doctrine has little or no influence in directing human conduct.
Hume insists that monotheism, while more reasonable than polytheism, is still generally practiced in the vulgar sense; that is, as a product of the passions rather than of reason. It works toward some goal.
The evidence for this is that our conduct is usually guided with a view to the pleasures and pains, rewards and punishments, of this life and not a future state T, 1. This is the question David Hume attempts to answer in section ten of his Enquiry Therefore, this was a case of theism versus deism, not a case of atheism versus theism.
In fact, the strongest argument against Hume’s essay on miracles is that he relies on a Christian theistic framework in order to attack the possibility of the. Because the field of arguments for miracles is so wide, a consideration of all of the criticisms that have been leveled against particular arguments for miracles would fill many volumes.
But four particular arguments raised by Hume are sufficiently well known to be of interest to philosophers. Johnson, David,Hume, Holism, and. Tweet "David Hume () was a Scottish philosopher and historian.
During his lifetime Hume was careful to disguise his own views (atheism most believe), so the question of whether he was an atheist or merely a deist remains debatable to this day. Themes, Arguments, and Ideas The Uncertainty of Causation.
Hume observes that while we may perceive two events that seem to occur in conjunction, there is no way for us to know the nature of their connection.
Based on this observation, Hume argues against the. Deism is a belief in the existence of a God who is not personally involved in the workings of the universe or in the lives of people.
According to deism, God created a perfect universe that did not require his personal intervention. Deists claim that the presence of evil is an argument against the existence of the personal God of theism. Hume’s analogical knowledge will play a key role as a presupposition in his arguments against miracles.
Hume’s Argument on Miracles Having given a brief overview of Hume’s epistemology, we can turn to his discussion of miracles.David humes arguments against deism