Even with all this durability, plastic products are not indestructible and it cannot be used as a basic building block for everything we need.
The strength of cube A gets higher as the curing time elapses, while cube E only gets slight increase in strength. Cost Estimate 25 I. This method was applied to build a compacted cushion consisting of two Figures 11 and 12 show the stress-strain curves for each group of specimens at days 7, 28, and 75 in the compression strength test.
The result suggests that the stress-strain curves become less steep with the decrease of strength. Plastic A kilogram of plastic costs 18Php.
The setting of the adhesive mortar depends on its thickness. We investigate the relationship between texture and the morphological elements as seen with a scanning electron microscope SEM of mollusk shell microstructures.
View at Google Scholar Y. The soil specimens containing fly ash gradually gain strength as curing proceeds. It is also a respiratory irritant because of its pungent odor. Also, plastic is a pioneer of economic, ecological, and social progress.
Some are pressed into shape, which leaves a frog, or depression, on their top surface. The soil used in this study does not expand, resulting in lack of expected outcome.
Porosity is not controlled by grain size, as the volume of between-grain space is related only to the method of grain packing. In Spain mussel shells have been used as an animal feed additive, for the production of mortars, a liming agent and constituent in fertilizers.
Moreover, with minimal upkeep, brick buildings generally last a long time. As clearly stated on the cost estimates, oyster shells and plastic have lower prices than sand.
Environmental Harm Ever increasing plastic production since s managed to saturate the world with waste plastic product that can cause big effects on our environment.
According to the U. The researchers came up with the idea to use waste materials in making concrete blocks instead of chemicals to make it stronger and cheaper. However, while the production process has definitely improved, the market for brick has not.
Only the Pozzolanic reaction between SiO2 in the fly ash or slag and CaO in the pulverized oyster shells, along with the addition of water reducer or superplasticizer, can improve the strength of pulverized-oyster-shell-added concrete.
WASTE SHELL CEMENT COMPOSITES A Major Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the Faculty of replacing percentages of fine aggregate and cement powder with either conch or oyster shells. Each mix proportion was tested under compression and tension at 3, 7, and 14 day curing times.
Feasibility of Pulverized Oyster Shell as a Cementing Material Chou-FuLiangandHung-YuWang Department of Civil Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Hsuefu Road, Neipu. replacing percentages of fine aggregate and cement powder with either conch or oyster shells.
Each mix proportion was tested under compression and tension at 3, 7, and 14 day curing times.
Flexural strength was determined via 3. Oyster Shell A kilogram of oyster shell costs 15Php. The price is a lot cheaper than buying a sack of sand and it has some of the properties present in sand. The price is low because the consumers of oysters usually treat the shells as trash. Oyster and mussel shells are non-biodegradable.
They pollute the land and water when discarded indiscriminately. Using them as raw materials for concrete tiles could solve the problem of disposal.
As a result, oyster shell piles are common in areas of oyster production with no further utilization. Chemical and microstructure analyses reveal that oyster shells are predominantly composed of CaO [3, 4], similar to that of lime, which has been used for soil stabilization .Feasibility of oyster shell as cement